Infestation of the trachea of the adult honeybee by the microscopic mite Acarapis woodi. Generally called the (honeybee) tracheal mite, or HBTM.

AFB American Foulbrood

A bacterial disease caused by Paenibacillus larvae.  Antibiotics Drugs used to assist in the control of several bacterial and protozoal diseases.


The location where one or more honeybee colonies are kept.


The keeping and management of the honeybee,  Apis mellifera.


Trade name of a miticide used to control varroa mites, with the active ingredient fluvalinate, which is a synthetic pyrethroid characterized by its low  (mammalian) toxicity.

Bee space 

A space of 8mm( 5/16”) that bees keep open for passage.


A secretion of wax from a bee’s wax gland.


Bees’ eggs, larvae, and pupae stages.

Brood Food 

Glandular secretions of highly nutritious food used to feed larvae and queens.

Brood Nest 

The space used by the bees to live.


The natural increase in the population of honeybees within a colony, from the spring cluster until the peak population is reached at the start of the main nectar flow.


A thin layer of wax covering cells containing honey. Bee brood cells are covered with a permeable, porous layer of wax.


The hexagonal structure used for brood rearing, pollen, and honey storage (see also queen cell).


Fungal disease-causing mummification of bee brood by Ascosphera apis.


With the onset of cold weather, bees will congregate in a cluster, vibrating their wing muscles to stay warm.


A population of worker bees, along with a queen and drones.

Drawn Comb 

Built-up (or drawn) foundation with completed cells (also referred to as just comb).


A male bee.

EFB European Foulbrood

A bacterial disease caused by Melissococcus pluton.


Removal of honey from the comb by placing honey frames in an extractor, which spins the frames and removes the honey through centrifugal force.

Flower Day 

Relates to planetary influences. Preferred days to manage colonies in order to stimulate brood and colony development.


Bee brood disease (see AFB, EFB).


Sheets of beeswax with the hexagonal shape of worker cells embossed into the wax.

Fruit Day 

Relates to planetary influences. Preferred days to manage colonies in order to stimulate the collection of nectar. Bees are least “stingy”.


Antibiotics specifically used to control the protozoan Nosema apis. Product sold under the trade name Fumidil B™.


The structure in which honeybees are housed.

Hive Tool 

A flat piece of metal bent on one end, used for super (hive box) and frame manipulation.

Hoffman frame 

A standardized frame to accommodate the foundation.


See comb


A sugar-rich sticky liquid, secreted by aphids.


Integrated Pest Management, preventing diseases by analyzing, before intervening.

KBV Kashmir Bee Vims

A viral disease most likely caused by stress.


Products applied to honeybee colonies to control parasitic mites.

Natural pointers Plants

Animals, or events that indicate exact timing for colony management.


Carbohydrate food sources gathered from plants.

Nectar flow 

Availability of nectar from flowers for worker bees to convert to honey and store in cells.


An intestinal disorder of adult honeybees caused by the protozoan, Nosema apis.


A nucleus or nuc is a four-or-five frame colony with a laying queen.


Trade name for the antibiotic oxytetracycline hydrochloride, used in the control of bacterial bee brood diseases.


Antibiotics registered in Canada for the control of brood diseases. Sold under different trade names, including Oxytet™, Terramycin™, etc.


Odours composed of chemicals produced by glands. Used to communicate.


A protein food gathered by worker bees from the anthers of flowers. Pollen provides minerals, fats and vitamins and is consumed by young nurse bees and converted into brood food and royal jelly.


Resins and gums gathered by bees from trees; used in sealing cracks, repairing cells, etc. in the hive.

Queen bee 

Adult female, laying fertile eggs when mature.

Queen cups 

Little cup-shaped cells usually built at the bottom of frames (oriented vertically) by bees preparing to rear a queen.

Queen cell 

A peanut-shaped cell to rear a queen.

Royal jelly 

A mandibular gland secretion fed to worker larvae resulting in the development of workers and queens.


Bee brood disease caused by viruses.


Cylindrical burner attached to a hand-held bellows producing smoke to control bees and reduce defensive behaviour.


Hive boxes with or without frames.


Replacement of the existing queen by a young queen produced by bees within the colony from their own eggs (re-queening without swarming).


The natural process of a new colony being created through the departure of part of the bee population, along with the queen, to establish a new nest.


Trade name for the antibiotic animal formulation, oxytetracycline hydrochloride, used in the control of bacterial bee brood diseases.

Top Bar Hive 

A hive system that uses no frames but just a bar on the top where bees draw their combs..

Tracheal Mite 

See Acarine.


The process of removing waxed cappings from cells containing honey.


A mite, Varroa Destructor, parasitizes bee brood and adult bees.

Varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) 

A behavioral trait of honey bees in which bees detect and remove bee pupae that are infested by the parasitic mite Varroa Destructor.

Warre hive 

Abbe Emile Warre (1867-1951), hive design using top bars but no foundations.

Wax sheet 

See Foundation

Worker bees 

Female bees, generally infertile, involved in all aspects of housekeeping, harvesting, guarding, etc., and constitute the vast majority of bees in a hive.